Artigos, Livros e Docs


The Science Of Marijuana

The Health Effects of Cannabis – summary

The Health Effects os Cannabis and Cannabinoids


Bibliografia Geral sobre Canábis Medicinal

  1. A Cultura do Cânhamo – Abreu MªJ. Divisão de Produção Agricola. DRAP Norte. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território.
  2. The Health Effects os Cannabis and Cannabinoids. Commitee on the Health Effects of Marijuana – a Report of the Academies of Sciences, Engeneering and Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2017
  3. Cannabis Sativa L. – Botany and Biotechnology. Springer. 2017
  4. The Science of Marijuana. Iversen L. Oxford University Press. 2008
  5. Weed – The New Science of Marijuana – National Geographic, June 2015
  6. Anticancer Mechanisms of Cannabinoids. Guzman M. Current Oncology. Mar; 23 (S2): S23-S32. March 2016
  7. Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Am Chem Soc.1964;86:1646–7
  8. Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, et al. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:83–90
  9. Adams, R., M. Hunt, and J. H. Clark. 1940a. Structure of cannabidiol, a product isolated from the marihuana extract of Minnesota wild hemp. I. Journal of the American Chemical Society 62(1):196–200.
  10. Adams, R., D. C. Pease, C. K. Cain, B. R. Baker, J. H. Clark, H. Wolff, and R. B. Wearn. 1940b. Conversion of cannabidiol to a product with marihuana activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society 62(8):2245–2246
  11. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 2013. Cannabis inflorescence: Cannabis spp.: Standards of identity, analysis, and quality control. Scott’s Valley, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia.
  12. Bergamaschi, M. M., R. H. Queiroz, M. H. Chagas, D. C. de Oliveira, B. S. De Martinis, F. Kapczinski, J. Quevedo, R. Roesler, N. Schr.der, A. E. Nardi, R. Mart.n-Santos, J. E. Hallak, A. W. Zuardi, and J. A. Crippa. 2011. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 36(6):1219–1226
  13. Bisogno, T., L. Hanus, L. De Petrocellis, S. Tchilibon, D. E. Ponde, I. Brandi, A. S Moriello, J. B. Davis, R. Mechoulam, and V. Di Marzo. 2001. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. British Journal of Pharmacology 134(4):845–852.
  14. Chandra, S., H. Lata, I. A. Khan, M. A. ElSohly. 2013. The role of biotechnology in Cannabis sativa propagation for the production of phytocannabinoid. In S. Chandra, H. Lata, I. A. Khan, and M. A. ElSohly (eds.), Biotechnology for medicinal plants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Pp. 123–148.
  15. Clarke, R. C., and M. D. Merlin. 2015. Cannabis: Evolution and ethnobotany. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  16. de Lago, E. and J. Fernandez-Ruiz. 2007. Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in motor-related disorders. CNS and Neurological Disorders in Drug Targets 6(6):377–387.
  17. ElSohly, M. A., and W. Gul. 2014. Constituents of cannabis sativa. In Handbook of Cannabis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  18. Gonzalez, S., M. Cebeira, and J. Fern.ndez-Ruiz. 2005. Cannabinoid tolerance and dependence: A review of studies in laboratory animals. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 81(2):300–318.
  19. Grotenhermen, F. 2003. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 42(4):327–360.
  20. Herkenham, M., A. B. Lynn, M. D. Little, M. R. Johnson, L. S. Melvin, B. R. de Costa, and K. C. Rice. 1990. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 87(5):1932–1936.
  21. Hillig, K. W. 2005. Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52(2):161–180.
  22. Hofmann, M. E., and C. J. Frazier. 2013. Marijuana, endocannabinoids, and epilepsy: Potential and challenges for improved therapeutic intervention. Experimental Neurology 244:43–50.
  23. Iuvone, T., G. Esposito, D. De Filippis, C. Scuderi, and L. Steardo. 2009. Cannabidiol: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics 15(1):65–75.
  24. Jones, N. A., A. J. Hill, I. Smith, S. A. Bevan, C. M. Williams, B. J. Whalley, and G. J. Stephens. 2010. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 332(2):569–577.
  25. Kuddus, M., I. A. M. Ginawi, and A. Al-Hazimi. 2013. Cannabis sativa: An ancient wild edible plant of India. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 25(10):736–745.
  26. Lakhan, S. E., and M. Rowland. 2009. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. BMC Neurology 9:59.
  27. Laprairie, R. B., A. M. Bagher, M. E. Kelly, and E. M. Denovan-Wright. 2015. Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology 172(20):4790–4805.
  28. Laursen, L. 2015. Botany: The cultivation of weed. Nature 525(7570):S4–S5.
  29. Mechoulam, R., and Y. Shvo. 1963. Hashish. I. The structure of cannabidiol. Tetrahedron 19(12):2073–2078.
  30. Russo, E. B., A. Burnett, B. Hall, and K. K. Parker. 2005. Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors. Neurochemical Research 30(8):1037–1043.
  31. Scuderi, C., D. D. Filippis, T. Iuvone, A. Blasio, A. Steardo, and G. Esposito. 2009. Cannabidiol in medicine: A review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. Phytotherapy Research 23(5):597–602.
  32. Small, E. 2015. Evolution and classification of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hemp) in relation to human utilization. The Botanical Review 81(3):189–294
  33. Thomas, A., G. L. Baillie, A. M. Phillips, R. K. Razdan, R. A. Ross, and R. G. Pertwee. 2007. Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. British Journal of Pharmacology 150(5):613–623
  34. Devinsky, O., M. R. Cilio, H. Cross, J. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. French, C. Hill, R. Katz, V. Di Marzo, D. Jutras-Aswad, W. G. Notcutt, J. Martinez-Orgado, P. J. Robson, B. G. Rohrback, E. Thiele, B. Whalley, and D. Friedman. 2014. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia 55(6):791–802.
  35. Devinsky, O., E. Marsh, D. Friedman, E. Thiele, L. Laux, J. Sullivan, I. Miller, R. Flamini, A. Wilfong, F. Filloux, M. Wong, N. Tilton, P. Bruno, J. Bluvstein, J. Hedlund, R. Kamens, J. Maclean, S. Nangia, N. S. Singhal, C. A. Wilson, A. Patel, and M. R. Cilio. 2016. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: An open-label interventional trial. The Lancet Neurology 15(3):270–278
  36. Hampson, A. J., M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink. 1998. Cannabidiol and delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:8268–8273
  37. Mechoulam, R., M. Spatz, and E. Shohami. 2002. Endocannabinoids and neuroprotection. Science’s STKE (129):re5.
  38. Prud’homme, M., R. Cata, and D. Jutras-Aswad. 2015. Cannabidiol as an intervention for addictive behaviors: A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment 9:33–38
  39. Rosenberg, E. C., R. W. Tsien, B. J. Whalley, and O. Devinsky. 2015. Cannabinoids and epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics 12(4):747–768.
  40. Rossi, S., G. Bernardi, and D. Centonze. 2010. The endocannabinoid system in the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of multiple sclerosis and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Experimental Neurology 224(1):92–102.
  41. Russo, E. B., G. W. Guy, and P. J. Robson. 2007. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry & Biodiversity 4(8):1729–1743.
  42. Sandyk, R., and G. Awerbuch. 1988. Marijuana and Tourette’s syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 8:444–445
  43. Smith, L. A., F. Azariah, T. C. V. Lavender, N. S. Stoner, and S. Bettiol. 2015. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11):CD009464.
  44. Andreae, M. H., G. M. Carter, N. Shaparin, K. Suslov, R. J. Ellis, M. A. Ware, D. I. Abrams, H. Prasad, B. Wilsey, D. Indyk, M. Johnson, and H. S. Sacks. 2015. Inhaled cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: A meta-analysis of individual patient data. Journal of Pain 16(12):1121–1232.
  45. Fitzcharles, M. A., P. A. Ste-Marie, W. Hauser, D. J. Clauw, S. Jamal, J. Karsh, T. Landry, S. LeClercq, J. J. McDougall, Y. Shir, K. Shojania, and Z. Walsh. 2016. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoid treatments in the rheumatic diseases: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care and Research 68(5):681–688. Richards, B. L., S. L. Whittle, D. M. Van Der Heijde, and R. Buchbinder. 2012. Efficacy and safety of neuromodulators in inflammatory arthritis: A Cochrane systematic review. Journal of Rheumatology 39(Suppl 90):28–33.
  46. Snedecor, S. J., L. Sudharshan, J. C. Cappelleri, A. Sadosky, P. Desai, Y. J. Jalundhwala, and M. Botteman. 2013. Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury. Journal of Pain Research 6:539–547.
  47. Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.
  48. Phillips, R. S., A. J. Friend, F. Gibson, E. Houghton, S. Gopaul, J. V. Craig, and B. Pizer. 2016. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in childhood. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2:CD007786.
  49. Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563
  50. Mechoulam R. Cunha M. Chronic Administration of Cannabidiol to Healthy Volunteers and Epileptic Patients. Pharmacology 1980;21:175–185
  51. Friedman D. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. Volume 55, Issue 6 June 2014, Pages 791–802